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Mediastinum

Mediastinum: Definition, anatomy, borders and contents

  1. The mediastinum is an area found in the midline of the thoracic cavity, that is surrounded by the left and right pleural sacs.It is divided into the superior and inferior mediastinum, of which the latter is larger.. The inferior mediastinum is further divided into the anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum.Every compartment of the mediastinum contains many vital organs, vascular and neural.
  2. Mediastinum definition is - the space in the chest between the pleural sacs of the lungs that contains all the tissues and organs of the chest except the lungs and pleurae; also : this space with its contents
  3. This is a preview to our tutorial which describes the contents and anatomy of the mediastinum. Check a closer look here in our atlas: https://khub.me/ygipzOh..
  4. The mediastinum is a large anatomic compartment in the thoracic cavity, bounded laterally by the pleurae, anteriorly by the sternum, posteriorly by the vertebrae, superiorly by the thoracic inlet, and inferiorly by the diaphragm. It is further subdivided into four arbitrary portions by the pericardium, namely, superior, anterior, middle, and.
  5. The mediastinum is a division of the thoracic cavity; it contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus and trachea, and other structures. For clinical purposes it is traditionally divided into the anterior, middle, posterior, and superior regions. The mediastinum comprises the fibrous membrane in the centre of the thoracic cavity.
  6. The mediastinum is a space in the thorax that contains a group of organs, vessels, nerves, lymphatics and their surrounding connective tissue.It lies in the midline of the chest between the pleura of each lung and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column.. Gross anatomy. The mediastinum contains all the thoracic viscera except the lungs: heart and great vessels, internal mammary.

Mediastinum Definition of Mediastinum by Merriam-Webste

  1. منْصِف (بالإنجليزية: Mediastinum)‏ جدار يحتل المسافة بين جزأين لعضو أو تحت قسمين في منطقة، خاصة الفراغ بين الكيسين الجنبويين.. علم التشريح. وهذا يظهر تحت أربعة أقسام وهي المنصف العلوي، ويقع فوق التامور، ومحدد من الأمام.
  2. Mediastinum is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal publishing papers on all benign, malignant, and metastatic diseases related to or affecting the mediastinum, such as thymic epithelial tumors, lymphomas, germ cell or neurogenic tumors and metastasis diseases including lung cancer and esophageal cancer
  3. Upper mediastinum nodes are usually smaller than nodes nearer the carina. • Internal mammary nodes, paracardiac nodes, and paravertebral nodes measure only a few millimeters. Different values for the upper limits of normal short-axis node diameter have been found for different mediastinal node groups ( Table 4.2). However, except for the.
  4. The mediastinum is the region in the chest between the pleural cavities that contains the heart and other thoracic viscera, except the lungs. Interest in the mediastinum as a separate body region stems from the diversity and importance of the structures it contains and the multiplicity of disease processes by which it can be affected
  5. The mediastinum is an important region of the body located between the lungs. Structures that lie in this region include the heart, the esophagus, the trachea, and large blood vessels including the aorta. The mediastinum is also home to lymph nodes. Nerthuz/Getty Images

Mediastinum: Anatomy & Contents (preview) - Human Anatomy

  1. Mediastinum ما هو منصف . جدار يحتل المسافة بين جزأين لعضو،أو تحت قسمين في منطقة، خاصة الفراغ بين الكيسين الجنبويين. وهذا يظهر أربعة تحت أقسام ؛ المنصف العلوي، ويقع فوق التامور، ومحدد من الأمام.
  2. mediastinum [me″de-ah-sti´num] (L.) 1. a median septum or partition. 2. the mass of tissues and organs separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and other structures and tissues. It is divided into anterior, middle, posterior, and superior.
  3. Mediastinum Lymph Node Map Robin Smithuis Radiology department of the Rijnland Hospital in Leiderdorp, the Netherlands. Publicationdate 2010-06-08. This is an update of the 2007 article, which used the Mountain-Dresler regional lymph node classification for lung cancer staging (MD-ATS maps)(1). In 2009 a new Lung cancer lymph node map was.
  4. The mediastinum is the central compartment of the thorax that is bounded by pleura on the right and left, by sternum anteriorly, and by vertebra posteriorly. It contains loose connective tissue and several vital structures, including the heart, great vessels, esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, and thymus
  5. Translation of mediastinum in Arabic. The leak in his mediastinum could've been caused by prolonged hiccups. I think we get to the neck and the mediastinum first. Well, unfortunately, we've discovered that the cancer has spread from the lung and metastasized to the bones and to lymph nodes in the mediastinum

Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest, or mediastinum. It can be either acute or chronic. It is thought to be due to four different etiologies: direct contamination. hematogenous or lymphatic spread. extension of infection from the neck or retroperitoneum. extension from the lung or pleura The mediastinum is the part of the chest that lies between the sternum and the spinal column, and between the lungs. This area contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), thymus gland, esophagus, and connective tissues. The mediastinum is divided into three sections: Mediastinal tumors are rare

Define mediastinum. mediastinum synonyms, mediastinum pronunciation, mediastinum translation, English dictionary definition of mediastinum. n. pl. me·di·as·ti·na The region in mammals between the pleural sacs, containing the heart and all of the thoracic viscera except the lungs. me′di·as·ti′nal.. mediastinum definition: 1. a structure that divides a body part in the centre: 2. the area of the chest that contains the. Learn more Infrequently, lymphoma starts in the anterior mediastinum. There are 2 categories of lymphoma: Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Germ cell: A rare mediastinal mass is a germ cell a tumor. They are very rare. They are usually benign (60 to 70%) and are found in both males and females

Mediastinum superius. Superiort for hjertet findes mediastinum superius, som er afgrænset inferiort af hjertet og hjertesækken, anteriort af manubrium sterni og posteriort af 1. til 4. brysthvirvler. Den indeholder: Brislen, øverste kant af denne, anteriort i rummet. Spiserøret, centralt-posteriort i rummet mediastinum: mature teratoma A horizontal slice of the resected tumor reveals fibrofatty tissue, calcified areas, and a few cystic spaces lined with smooth membrane and containing a hair. In the left lower corner, the involved B5 bronchus is evident Objectives: Congenital cysts of the mediastinum are an uncommon but important diagnostic group, representing 12 to 30% of all mediastinal masses. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience with congenital cysts of the mediastinum, emphasizing the clinical spectrum of the disease Mediastinum definition, a median septum or partition between two parts of an organ, or paired cavities of the body. See more A gátor (mediastinum) a mellhártya két, jórészt sagittalis (a szimmetriasíkkal párhuzamos), belső fali lemeze közötti tér, amelyben fontos szervek, így a szív és a nagy erek, a tüdőkapun be- és kilépő, és a nyakról a hasüregbe futó képletek helyezkednek el. Fönt nincs éles határa a nyak felé, lent a rekesz, elöl a szegycsont, hátul a gerinc határolja

What is the mediastinum. The mediastinum is a broad central chest cavity that separates the lungs from the other structures in the chest. Mediastinum extends from the sternum to the bodies of the vertebrae, and from the superior thoracic aperture to the diaphragm Mediastinum Definition. The mediastinum is an undefined anatomic space between the lungs that comprises a group of structures within the thorax and principal tissues of the chest excluding the lungs. It contains trachea (a section of the windpipe) heart, esophagus, cardiac nerves, phrenic, thymus, thoracic duct, and other important vessels.

Mediastinum - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. The mediastinum is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity, the area inside the ribcage. It is surrounded by areolar connective tissue and contains all thoracic organs except for the lungs, including the heart and its great blood vessels, the esophagus and trachea, the phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, the thymus, and lymph.
  2. this is Dr.haider's lec, the one we took today , he left it on the desktop and said you can take it =D and btw for the pics he said check any anatomy book eve
  3. Pneumomediastinum is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. This condition can result from physical trauma or other situations that lead to air escaping from the lungs, airways or bowel into the chest cavity. Pneumomediastinum is a rare situation and occurs when air leaks into the mediastinum
  4. Find mediastinum stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day

The mediastinum contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, thymus, trachea, lymph nodes and nerves. The thymus is an organ that is part of the immune system. The lymph system, or lymphatic system, is also part of the immune system and helps to protect the body The anterior mediastinum stops at the level of the superior clavicle. Therefore, when a mass extends above the superior clavicle, it is located either in the neck or in the posterior mediastinum. When lung tissue comes between the mass and the neck, the mass is probably in the posterior mediastinum. This is known as the Cervicothoracic Sign

Pneumomediastinum is the presence of extraluminal gas within the mediastinum. Gas may originate from the lungs, trachea, central bronchi, esophagus, and peritoneal cavity and track from the mediastinum to the neck or abdomen. Terminology In the.. Das Mediastinum ist der Mittelfellraum (aus dem Lateinischen: in der Mitte Stehendes), also der Brustkorbraum zwischen den beiden Lungenflügeln. Er reicht vorne vom Brustbein bis hinten zur Brustwirbelsäule und oben vom Hals bis unten zum Zwerchfell. Das Mediastinum enthält mit Ausnahme der Lunge die Brusteingeweide wie das Herz mit dem Herzbeutel, den unteren Teil der Luftröhre und der.

mediastinum Definition, Location, Organs, & Facts

Pneumomediastinum CT - wikidocThoracic cavity - wikidoc

Tumors of the mediastinum represent a wide diversity of disease states. The location and composition of a mass is critical to narrowing the differential diagnosis. The most common causes of an anterior mediastinal mass include the following: thymoma; teratoma; thyroid disease; and lymphoma. Masses o The Mediastinum is one of the most important locations in the human body, though this is not widely recognized because of its miscellaneous nature. Mediastinoscopy is an endoscopy to the mediastinum Anatomy of the thorax (lungs and mediastinum) (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging. We created an anatomy atlas of the chest and the mediastinum which is an interactive tool for studying the cross-sectional anatomy of the normal thorax based on an enhanced multidetector computed tomography with helical. Moran CA, Suster S, Koss MN. Primary germ cell tumors of the mediastinum: III. Yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and combined nonteratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum--a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 64 cases. Cancer 1997; 80:699

Mediastinum Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

منصف (تشريح) - ويكيبيدي

There is air in the mediastinum surrounding the aorta and trachea. The patient was an asthmatic who presumably ruptured a bleb with air dissecting back along the bronchovascular bundles of the lung to the mediastinum. Blue arrow points to continuous diaphragm sign. The entire diaphragm is visualized from one side to the other because air in. The mediastinum is an anatomical space between the lungs that houses the thymus, heart, large blood vessels, lymph nodes, nerves, and portions of the esophagus and trachea. It is bound anteriorly by the sternum, posteriorly by the thoracic vertebrae, superiorly by the thoracic inlet, inferiorly by the diaphragm, and laterally by the pericardial and mediastinal pleurae A widened mediastinum is a feature often seen on a plain chest x-ray. When the mediastinum is greater than 6 to 8cm, depending on which source, it is noted to be wide. A wide mediastinum has many causes which include the following: Thoracic aortic aneurysm of the ascending and proximal descending aorta. Aortic dissection of ascending and.

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Chylothorax is a feared complication after many cardiothoracic operations and one that occurs in 4% of patients after esophagectomy and 1.4% of patients after lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection. 1-3 Fortunately, 38% to 90% of chylothorax will close spontaneously with dietary or medical management The mediastinum is a broad central chest cavity that separates the lungs from the other structures in the chest. Mediastinum extends from the sternum to the bodies of the vertebrae, and from the superior thoracic aperture to the diaphragm The normal contents of the anterior mediastinum include the thymus, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, nerves, vessels, and sometimes downward extension of the thyroid from the neck. Anterior mediastinal masses generally arise from these structures. Clinically, an anterior mediastinal mass may be silent and incidentally discovered on imaging What does mediastinum mean? The region in mammals between the pleural sacs, containing the heart and all of the thoracic viscera except the lungs Cystic masses of the mediastinum are well-marginated round lesions that contain fluid and are lined with epithelium. Major cystic masses include congenital benign cysts (ie, bronchogenic, esophageal duplication, neurenteric, pericardial, and thymic cysts), meningocele, mature cystic teratoma, and lymphangioma

Mediastinum: Lymph Node Abnormalities and Masses

Definition and Conditions of the Mediastinu

The mediastinum is the space between the left and right pleural sacs ( white arrows in B ). Part C is a transverse slice in the caudal thorax, caudal to the tracheal bifurcation. The solid lines designate contact between the visceral and parietal pleural layers Mediastinum Computed tomography (CT) is indispensable in imaging the mediastinum. Although conventional radiographs can show recognizable abnormalities in many patients with mediastinal pathology, radiographs are limited in their sensitivity and ability to delineate the extent of mediastinal abnormalities and the relationship of masses to specific mediastinal structures The mediastinum is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity, located between the two pleural sacs. It contains most of the thoracic organs, and acts as a conduit for structures traversing the thorax on their way into the abdomen Mediastinum and Great Vessels. These lectures discus the Mediastinum. Recall the mediastinum is that region of the chest cavity that lies in the middle, between the left and right pleural cavities. Superior mediastinum and thoracic outlet (Lab) 8:03. Mediastinum (Lab) 5:03

منصف ( Mediastinum ) الطب

The heart is located in the middle mediastinum. Other visible structures of the mediastinum should also be checked when viewing a chest X-ray.These include the aortic knuckle, descending aorta, aortopulmonary window, and right paratracheal stripe Mediastinal tumors develop in the mediastinum. The mediastinum is the area in the middle of the chest that lies between the sternum (breastbone) and spinal column. The area contains vital organs.

Therefore, the mediastinum is surrounded by several protective skeletal structures, which include a sternum (breastbone) sited in front, spine is located at back. The mediastinum is divided into three locations and the mass can form in any segments of the mediastinum Gross description. Often encapsulated in mediastinum (not at other sites) Usually centered on or grow within a large spinal nerve root. May have intradural and extradural components and protrude through neural foramina of vertebral column. Plexiform tumors resemble a neural plexus. Degenerative changes are common (fat, hemorrhage, cysts

Mediastinum definition of mediastinum by Medical dictionar

Definition / general. Malignant mesenchymal tumor of uncertain lineage that most often presents in the extremities of young adults. While synovial sarcoma occurs in the pleuropulmonary parenchyma with some frequency, it is very rare in the mediastinum ( Mod Pathol 2007;20:760 Cardiomediastinal refers to the mediastinum, which is the area between the lungs that contains the heart, esophagus and thymus. The term cardiomediastinal is an adjective that references bodily functions and disorders related to the heart and surrounding tissue. View the cardiomediastinal silhouette by x-ray or other medical imaging technique

The Radiology Assistant : Mediastinum Lymph Node Ma

PathoBasic comprises a collection of power point presentations and virtual slides covering basic topics of all organ systems. PathoBasic is part of the resident training at the Institute of Pathology of the University Hospital of Basel. Each training cycle, which covers all organ systems, lasts 5 years. The first training program started in January 201 The middle mediastinum is the pericardium and its cavity. The anterior boundary of the posterior mediastinum is the posterior pericardial wall. The posterior boundary is the anterior surfaces of the bodies of thoracic vertebrae T5-T12. In the dissection of cadavers, the posterior mediastinum is exposed by removing the pericardial sac and the heart Azygos vein (Vena azygos) The azygos venous system is located on either side of the vertebral column and drains the viscera within the mediastinum, as well as the back and thoracoabdominal walls. This system consists of the azygos vein and its two main tributaries: the hemiazygos vein and the accessory hemiazygos vein.. The azygos vein usually arises either from the lumbar azygos vein or from. The mediastinum is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity and lies between the two pulmonary cavities. It's covered on each side by the mediastinal pleura and contains all thoracic viscera and structures minus the lungs. The mediastinum is divided into four parts, of which one is superior and three are inferior With the thorax in tact, the first thing you see when you get ready to study the superior mediastinum is the manubrium of the sternum and the cartilage of the first rib. These structures make up the anterior boundary. The first plane is the glandular plane. The gland is what is left of the thymus

The mediastinum is the area in the chest between the lungs that contains the heart, part of the windpipe (the trachea), the esophagus, and the great vessels including the ascending aorta (the large artery which carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart on its way to the rest of the body) and right and left posterior mediastinum, posterior aspect of the heart and pericardium, posterior part of the respiratory diaphragm: posterior mediastinal nodes drain primarily to the thoracic duct : parasternal nodes: lateral border of sternum, along the course of the internal thoracic vessels The mediastinum is a division of the thoracic cavity; it contains the heart, thymus gland, portions of the esophagus and trachea, and other structures. Where is the lymphatic terminus located? Lymph flows from the lymphatic capillaries, through lymphatic vessels, and then is dumped into the circulatory system via the lymphatic ducts located at.

mediastinal teratoma - Humpath

chest ct scan - mediastinum. this image is a ct scan of the chest of a human (in ct scan bones are white) showing mediastinum details with the different structures in it. showing: 16. ascending aorta 17. descending thoracic aorta 18. left pulmonary artery 19. superior vena cava 20. righ Mediasten veya mediastinum göğüs kafesinde yer alan, akciğerlerin arkasında kalan bölüm. Toraksın üstünden, diyaframa kadar uzanır. Kalp, kalbin büyük damarları, özafagus, trakea, frenik sinir, kardiak sinir, timus ve mediasten lenf nodlarını içerir. Üç bölüme ayrılır. Ön mediasten: Perikardın önü, sternumun arkasında yer alır..

เมดิแอสตินัม ( อังกฤษ: Mediastinum) หรือ ประจันอก หรือ อวัยวะคั่นระหว่างปอด เป็นกลุ่มของอวัยวะและโครงสร้างต่างๆ ภายใน ทรวงอก ล้อมรอบ. Mediastinum. Presjek kroz srce u smjeru desno-lijevo. U ovom presjeku vidljive su granice medijastinuma prema gore i prema dolje. Medijastinum ili sredogruđe je prostor između lijevog i desnog plućnog krila, koji se prostire sprijeda do prsne kosti (sternum), a straga do kralježnice The mediastinum lies between the right and left pleurae (a delicate membrane that encloses the lungs) in and near the median sagittal plane of the chest. It extends from the sternum in front to the vertebral column behind, and contains the heart, aorta (the body's largest artery), esophagus, thymus (one of the glands), trachea, lymph nodes, and nerves Widened Mediastinum Criteria. Superior mediastinum >8 cm wide at the aortic knob (on PA View) OR. Mediastinum >33% of the transthoracic dstance at the aortic knob (on supine AP View) Aortic Injury Findings. Apical pleural cap ( Pleural Effusion in the lung apex) Left mainstem Bronchus deviated downward

mediastinum [ ,mi:diæs'tainəm ] n. the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus 以上来源于: WordNe The mediastinum is defined as the space from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm situated between the pleural sacs of the lungs. The superior mediastinum lies above a line from the lower manubrium to the fourth thoracic vertebrae and contains the thymus, trachea, upper esophagus, and aortic arch mediastinum 【名】《解剖》縦隔【発音】mìːdiəstáinəm【カナ】ミーディアスタイナム - アルクがお届けするオンライン英和・和英辞書検索サービス Fibrosing mediastinitis is a condition that affects the area between the lungs (mediastinum) which contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), esophagus, and lymph nodes.People with fibrosing mediastinitis have varying amounts of scar tissue in the mediastinum which may cause problems for the organs located there. For example, some affected people may develop blocked airways.

Neonatal Pneumomediastinum and the Spinnaker-Sail Sign | NEJM

Mediastinum, Chest Wall, and Diaphragm Radiology Ke

El mediastino (del latín, estar en medio) es la región media entre los dos sacos pleurales. Se extiende desde el orificio superior del agujero magno hasta el diafragma y desde el esternón y los cartílagos costales por delante hasta la superficie anterior de las 12 vértebras torácicas por detrás. Los cuerpos vertebrales no se encuentran. The history of NMR (known as MRI) begins with a french mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) who developed a mathematical method to analyze the heat transfer between solid bodies. Later this discovery made rapid processing of phase and frequency signals possible in NMR. The unit strength of a magnetic field is the Tesla (1. Mediastinum superius je pomerne malý priestor nachádzajúci sa za manumbrium sterni od apertura thoracis superior po rovinu medzi angulus sterni a discus intervertebralis Th4 a Th5.Komunikuje s priestorom krku aj retroperitonea, preto sa do týcho oblasti môžu ľahko šíriť infekcie alebo nádorove bujnenie.. Vo ventrodorzálnom poradí obsahuje tieto hlavné štruktúry: thymus, vény. This includes the pineal gland in the brain, the mediastinum (area between the lungs), and retroperitoneum (the back wall of the abdomen). Extragonadal germ cell tumors can be benign (noncancer) or malignant . Benign extragonadal germ cell tumors are called benign teratomas. These are more common than malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors and. 19 Thorax, Mediastinum P. Proschek, Th. Vogl 19.1 Normale Anatomie/Topographie - 491 19.2 Spezielle Untersuchungstechnik - 50 3 19.3 Systematik der Bildanalyse - 50 8 19.4 Spezifische Analyse der Thoraxorgane: spezifische Bildmerkmale - 50 9 19.4.1 Merkmale zur Beurteilung der einzelnen Organe - 50

WebpathologyPneumopericardium - wikidoc

mediastinum - Translation into Arabic - examples English

Эта страница в последний раз была отредактирована 19 августа 2017 в 08:30. Текст доступен по лицензии Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike, в отдельных случаях могут действовать дополнительные условия.Подробнее см The mediastinum is the area centrally located between the right and left pleural cavities. The mediastinum can be broadly divided into superior and inferior compartments. The Superior Mediastinum is a space for structures to pass between the head/neck and the thorax. The Inferior Mediastinum comprises the anterior, middle, and posterior sub. Etiologi tumor mediastinum dapat berupa tumor kelenjar timus, germ cell tumor, tumor limfatik, tumor ektopik endokrin, dan tumor neurogenik. Rongga mediastinum terbagi menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu mediastinum anterior, medial, dan posterior. Setiap bagian ini umumnya memiliki kecenderungan tumor tersendiri Mediastinum: Normal Anatomy. The mediastinum is the median partition of the thoracic cavity, covered by the mediastinal part of the parietal pleura and containing all the thoracic viscera and structures except the lungs. It is loosely subdivided into cranial (cranial to the heart), middle (the heart and everything immediately dorsal and ventral. mediastinum. 名詞. 1. 心臓 、 大動脈 、 食道 、 気管 、 および 胸腺 を含む 肺の 間の 胸腔 部分. (the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus) 「mediastinum」に関する類語一覧. 索引 用語索引 ランキング

Kidneys, ureters & suprarenal glands: Anatomy, locationPharynx (throat) anatomy: Muscles, arteries and nerves

The anterior mediastinum contains the heart and heart sac (the pericardium), the ascending aorta and its arch (including the arteries issuing from them), the pulmonary trunk, the venae cavae, the pulmonary veins, and the phrenic nerves. The posterior mediastinum contains the thoracic portion of the descending aorta and its branches, the. Extragonadal GCTs typically arise in midline locations, and specific sites vary with age. In adults, the most common sites, in order of frequency, are the anterior mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, and the pineal and suprasellar regions. In infants and young children, sacrococcygeal and intracranial GCTs are most common The mediastinum is the area in the centre of the chest, between the lungs. It contains the heart, windpipe (trachea), food pipe (oesophagus), large main blood vessels and the lymph nodes that surround the heart. About mediastinal germ cell tumours